Smoking and serum vitamin D in older Chinese people: cross-sectional analysis based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

C Q Jiang, Kar Cheng, Y H Chan, L Xu, Y L Jin, T Zhu, W S Zhang, T H Lam

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Abstract

Objective: Studies on serum vitamin D in smokers showed conflicting results. We examined the association of smoking status with serum vitamin D in older Chinese men, taking advantage of a community-based sample with natural exposure of vitamin D.
Design: Cross-sectional study based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS)
Setting: Community-based sample from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study
Participants: Six-hundred and twelve male participants aged 50+ years recruited from 2009 to 2011.
Results: The mean (standard deviation) of vitamin D concentration was 58.3 (17.2), 57.0 (15.0) and 54.7 (15.4) nmol/l for never, former and current smokers, respectively. Adjusted for multiple confounders, vitamin D decreased from never to former, then to current smokers (P for trend 0.02). Compared to never smokers, current smokers had lower serum concentrations of vitamin D, and the concentrations decreased with the increasing number of cigarettes per day (-3.11 (95% confidence interval -9.05 to 2.82), -3.29 (-8.3 to 1.72) and -4.61 (-8.89 to -0.33) for 1-9, 10-19 and 20+ cigarettes per day respectively; P for trend 0.01), duration of smoking (-1.39 (-6.09 to 3.30) and -5.39 (-9.42 to -1.35) for 1-39 and 40+ years respectively; P for trend 0.008) as well as pack-years (-2.89 (-6.78 to 1.01) and -5.58 (-10.48 to -0.67) for 1-39 and 40+ pack-years respectively; P for trend 0.009). Longer duration of quitting smoking was associated with higher vitamin D than current smoking (P for trend 0.04).
Conclusions: Current smoking had lower vitamin D than never smoker, and the association showed a dose-response pattern.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere010946
JournalBMJ open
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2016

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