Quantitative evaluation of frequency domain measurements in high density diffuse optical tomography

Guy Perkins, Adam T Eggebrecht, Hamid Dehghani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Downloads (Pure)


SIGNIFICANCE: High density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) as applied in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is largely limited to continuous wave (CW) data. Using a single modulation frequency, frequency domain (FD) HD-DOT has recently demonstrated better localization of focal activation as compared to CW data. We show that combining CW and FD measurements and multiple modulation frequencies increases imaging performance in fNIRS. AIM: We evaluate the benefits of multiple modulation frequencies, combining different frequencies as well as CW data in fNIRS HD-DOT. APPROACH: A layered model was used, with activation occurring within a cortex layer. CW and FD measurements were simulated at 78, 141, and 203 MHz with and without noise. The localization error, full width half maximum, and effective resolution were evaluated. RESULTS: Across the average of the three metrics, at 141 MHz, FD performed 8.4% better than CW, and the combination of CW and FD was 21.7% better than CW. FD measurements at 203 MHz performed 5% better than 78 MHz. Moreover, the three combined modulation frequencies of FD and CW performed up to 3.92% better than 141 MHz alone. CONCLUSIONS: We show that combining CW and FD measurements offers better performance than FD alone, with higher modulation frequencies increasing accuracy. Combining CW and FD measurements at multiple modulation frequencies yields the best overall performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number056001
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2021


  • brain imaging
  • diffuse optical tomography
  • frequency domain
  • modulation frequency
  • near-infrared spectroscopy
  • resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Quantitative evaluation of frequency domain measurements in high density diffuse optical tomography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this