Bristol, Shipman, and clinical governance: Shewhart's forgotten lessons

Mohammed Mohammed, Kar Cheng, Andrew Rouse, Tom Marshall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

176 Citations (Scopus)


During the past century, manufacturing industry has achieved great success in improving the quality of its products. An essential factor in this success has been the use of Walter A Shewhart's pioneering work in the economic control of variation, which culminated in the development of a simple yet powerful graphical method known as the control chart. This chart classifies variation as having a common cause or special cause and thus guides the user to the most appropriate action to effect improvement. Using six case studies, including the excess deaths after paediatric cardiac surgery seen in Bristol, UK, and the activities of general practitioner turned murderer Harold Shipman, we show a central role for Shewhart's approach in turning the rhetoric of clinical governance into a reality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-467
Number of pages5
Issue number9254
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2001


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