A comparative study on the capacity of a range of food-grade particles to form stable O/W and W/O Pickering emulsions

Laudina J. Duffus*, Jennifer E. Norton, Paul Smith, Ian T. Norton, Fotios Spyropoulos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)
252 Downloads (Pure)


Whilst literature describing edible Pickering emulsions is becoming increasingly available, current understanding of these systems still suffers from a lack of consistency in terms of the (processing and formulation) conditions within which these structures have been studied. The current study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the behaviour of different edible Pickering candidates and their ability to stabilise emulsion droplets, under well-controlled and uniform experimental conditions, in order to clearly identify the particle properties necessary for successful Pickering functionality.More specifically, an extensive investigation into the suitability of various food-grade material to act as Pickering particles and provide stable oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was carried out. Polysaccharide and flavonoid particles were characterised in terms of their size, ζ-potential, interfacial activity and wettability, under equivalent conditions. Particles were subsequently used to stabilise 20% w/w O/W and W/O emulsions, in the absence of added surfactant or other known emulsifying agents, through different processing routes.All formed Pickering emulsions were shown to resist significant droplet size variation and remain stable at particle concentrations between 2 and 3% w/w. The main particle prerequisites for successful Pickering stabilisation were: particle size (200 nm - 1 μm); an affinity for the emulsion continuous phase and a sufficient particle charge to extend stability. Depending upon the employed emulsification process, the resulting emulsion formation and stability behaviour can be reasonably predicted a priori from the evaluation of specific particle characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-21
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Colloid and Interface Science
Early online date30 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016


  • Cellulose
  • Flavonoids
  • Pickering emulsions
  • Pickering particles
  • Wettability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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