Huddle test measurement of a near Johnson noise limited geophone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • R. Kirchhoff
  • V. B. Adya
  • G. Bergmann
  • M. M. Hanke
  • P. Koch
  • S. M. Köhlenbeck
  • J. Lehmann
  • P. Oppermann
  • J. Wöhler
  • D. S. Wu
  • H. Lück
  • K. A. Strain

Colleges, School and Institutes


In this paper, the sensor noise of two geophone configurations (L-22D and L-4C geophones from Sercel with custom built amplifiers) was measured by performing two huddle tests. It is shown that the accuracy of the results can be significantly improved by performing the huddle test in a seismically quiet environment and by using a large number of reference sensors to remove the seismic foreground signal from the data. Using these two techniques, the measured sensor noise of the two geophone configurations matched the calculated predictions remarkably well in the bandwidth of interest (0.01 Hz-100 Hz). Low noise operational amplifiers OPA188 were utilized to amplify the L-4C geophone to give a sensor that was characterized to be near Johnson noise limited in the bandwidth of interest with a noise value of 10-11 m/Hz at 1 Hz.


Original languageEnglish
Article number115008
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 21 Nov 2017

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