Generation of magnesium enriched water-in-oil-in-water food emulsions by stirred cell membrane emulsification

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  • University of Nottingham
  • Loughborough University


This study has for the first time shown that complex food emulsifiers such as starch and protein can be applied to produce stable w/o/w emulsions with the membrane emulsification technology. Using a microporous metal membrane with a 20 μm pore size, 2% of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), 4% of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch or 1.5% of pea protein isolate (PPI) in the external water phase respectively was the minimum concentration necessary to stabilise the w/o/w droplets. Uniform with a span as low as 0.45 and for at least 13-day stable w/o/w emulsions of droplets between 35 and 320 μm were obtained. The release of a magnesium tracer from the internal water phase of xanthan gum-thickened w/o/w emulsions, when OSA starch and PPI were used, was found to be limited to around 3% after 13-day storage. However, w/o/w emulsions stabilised with Tween 20 were less stable with magnesium showing a release of 27% on day 13.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)178-187
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Early online date27 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019