Dental pulp stem cells: Novel cell-based and cell-free therapy for peripheral nerve repair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Authors

  • Nessma Sultan
  • Laila E Amin
  • Ahmed R Zaher
  • Ben Scheven
  • Mohammed E Grawish

Colleges, School and Institutes

Abstract

The regeneration of peripheral nerves comprises complicated steps involving a set of cellular and molecular events in distal nerve stumps with axonal sprouting and remyelination. Stem cell isolation and expansion for peripheral nerve repair (PNR) can be achieved using a wide diversity of prenatal and adult tissues, such as bone marrow or brain tissues. The ability to obtain stem cells for cell-based therapy (CBT) is limited due to donor site morbidity and the invasive nature of the harvesting process. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be relatively and simply isolated from the dental pulps of permanent teeth, extracted for surgical or orthodontic reasons. DPSCs are of neural crest origin with an outstanding ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. They have better potential to differentiate into neural and glial cells than other stem cell sources through the expression and secretion of certain markers and a range of neurotropic factors; thus, they should be considered a good choice for PNR using CBT. In addition, these cells have paracrine effects through the secretion of neurotrophic growth factors and extracellular vesicles, which can enhance axonal growth and remyelination by decreasing the number of dying cells and activating local inhabitant stem cell populations, thereby revitalizing dormant or blocked cells, modulating the immune system and regulating inflammatory responses. The use of DPSC-derived secretomes holds great promise for controllable and manageable therapy for peripheral nerve injury. In this review, up-to-date information about the neurotrophic and neurogenic properties of DPSCs and their secretomes is provided.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalWorld Journal of Stomatology
Volume7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2019