A discrete multi-physics model to simulate fluid structure interaction and breakage of capsules filled with liquid under coaxial load

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  • University of Nottingham


This paper investigated the mechanical response (including breakage and release of the internal liquid) of single core–shell capsules under compression by means of discrete multi-physics. The model combined Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for modelling the fluid and the Lattice Spring Model for the elastic membrane. Thanks to the meshless nature of discrete multi-physics, the model can easily account for the fracture of the capsule’s shell and the interactions between the internal liquid and the solid shell. The simulations replicated a parallel plate compression test of a single core–shell capsule. The inputs of the model were the size of the capsule, the thickness of the shell, the geometry of the internal structure, the Young’s modulus of the shell material, and the fluid’s density and viscosity. The outputs of the model were the fracture type, the maximum force needed for the fracture, and the force–displacement curve. The data were validated by reproducing equivalent experimental tests in the laboratory. The simulations accurately reproduced the breakage of capsules with different mechanical properties. The proposed model can be used as a tool for designing capsules that, under stress, break and release their internal liquid at a specific time.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: This research received funding from the European Union?s H2020 Programme for research, technological development, and demonstration under grant agreement number 721493. The research presented in this paper was carried out as part of the H2020-MSCA-ETN-2016. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access.


Original languageEnglish
Article number354
Number of pages13
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2021


  • Breakable solids simulation, Capsule, Discrete multi-physics, Lattice Spring Model, Smoothed Particle Hydro-dynamics