Yoga Programme for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention (YOGA-DP) Among High-Risk People in India: A Multicenter Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

Kaushik Chattopadhyay*, Pallavi Mishra, Kavita Singh, Kalpana Singh, Tess Harris, Mark Hamer, Sheila Margaret Greenfield, Nandi Krishnamurthy Manjunath, Rukamani Nair, Somnath Mukherjee, Nikhil Tandon, Sarah Anne Lewis, Sanjay Kinra, Dorairaj Prabhakaran

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Introduction
Many Indians are at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The blood glucose level can be improved through a healthy lifestyle (such as physical activity and a healthy diet). Yoga can help in T2DM prevention, being a culturally appropriate approach to improving lifestyle. We developed the Yoga Programme for T2DM Prevention (YOGA-DP), a 24-week structured lifestyle education and exercise (Yoga) program that included 27 group Yoga sessions and self-practice of Yoga at home. In this study, the feasibility of undertaking a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) was explored that will evaluate the intervention’s effectiveness among high-risk individuals in India.

Methods
A multicenter, two-arm, parallel-group, feasibility RCT was conducted in India. The outcome assessors and data analysts were blinded. Adults with a fasting blood glucose level of 100–125 mg/dL (i.e., at high risk of T2DM) were eligible. Participants were randomized centrally using a computer-generated randomization schedule. In the intervention group, participants received YOGA-DP. In the control group, participants received enhanced standard care.

Results
In this feasibility trial, the recruitment of participants took 4 months (from May to September 2019). We screened 711 people and assessed 160 for eligibility. Sixty-five participants (33 in the intervention group and 32 in the control group) were randomized, and 57 (88%) participants were followed up for 6 months (32 in the intervention group and 25 in the control group). In the intervention group, the group Yoga sessions were continuously attended by 32 (97%) participants (median (interquartile range, IQR) number of sessions attended = 27 (3)). In the intervention group, Yoga was self-practiced at home by 30 (91%) participants (median (IQR) number of days per week and minutes per day self-practiced = 2 (2) and 35 (15), respectively). In the control group, one (3%) participant attended external Yoga sessions (on Pranayama) for 1 week during the feasibility trial period. There was no serious adverse event.

Conclusions
The participant recruitment and follow-up and adherence to the intervention were promising in this feasibility study. In the control group, the potential contamination was low. Therefore, it should be feasible to undertake a definitive RCT in the future that will evaluate YOGA-DP’s effectiveness among high-risk people in India.

Feasibility Trial Registration
Clinical Trials Registry—India (CTRI) CTRI/2019/05/018893; registered on May 1, 2019.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages18
JournalDiabetes Therapy: Research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders
Early online date31 Mar 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Mar 2023

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