Valorization of phosphogypsum as a thermal energy storage material for low temperature applications

Argyrios Anagnostopoulos*, M. Navarro, A. Ahmad, Yulong Ding, G. Gaidajis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Phoshpogypsum (PG) is an industrial byproduct of the fertilizer industry typically disposed in the sea, dams or dykes, which presents a significant environmental hazard due to elevated content in radioactive heavy metals. Only 15% of it is recycled, and to this end, a novel circular economy case is proposed. The PG is combined with a commercial-grade paraffin to fabricate composite phase change materials (CPCMs). No variation in latent heat and melting point are observed after 96 cycles (25 to 100 °C) denoting good thermal stability. Maximum latent heat is 75 J/g (60% paraffin content), while the optimal average specific heat capacity is 1.54 J/gK for the same paraffin content. The thermal conductivity is found to be up to 0.46 W/mK; 75% higher than pure paraffin. The maximum energy storage density is 237 MJ/m 3; only 14% lower than the pure paraffin. A lab scale TES layout of the PG based CPCMs is also investigated in ANSYS. The effect of the flow rate of the heat transfer fluid, in this case air, is evaluated. A maximum charge and discharge efficiency of 88.1% and 66.2% respectively, is achieved for flow rates of 5.5 and 22 L/min correspondingly.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130839
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Early online date15 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge partial financial support from UK EPSRC under grants EP/V012053/1 , EP/S032622/1 , EP/P004709/1 and EP/T022981/1 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Circular economy
  • Composite
  • Paraffn
  • Phoshogypsum
  • Sustainability
  • Thermal energy storage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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