Transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

Risto J. Ilmoniemi, Zhi-De Deng, Luis Gomez, Lari Koponen, Jaakko O. Nieminen, Angel V. Peterchev, Charles M. Epstein

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


Many different types of TMS coils have been proposed and implemented, but all share certain common features. The induced electric field is always maximum in the superficial parts of the brain, nearest the coil, and attenuates toward the center of the head. Power requirements are high. Design tradeoffs are present between specific coil features including focality, relative penetration, size, weight, efficiency, heating, and noise. Because of the high voltages and currents involved, electrical safety, cooling, and the need for hearing protection must always be considered. Special situations such as placebo stimulation, small animal studies, and stimulation inside MRI systems generally require coils designed specifically for these applications.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation (2nd edn)
EditorsEric M. Wassermann, Angel V. Peterchev, Ulf Ziemann, Sarah H. Lisanby, Hartwig R. Siebner, Vincent Walsh
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9780191870910
ISBN (Print)9780198832256
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2022


  • transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • coil
  • electric field
  • magnetic field
  • penetration
  • focality
  • pulse
  • design


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