Time poverty and gender in urban sub-Saharan Africa: Long working days and long commutes in Ghana’s Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

Fiona Carmichael, Christian Darko*, Patricia Daley, Jo Duberley, Marco Ercolani, Tim Schwanen, Daniel Wheatley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

This study uses a mixed-methods approach and primary data to consider how the length of the working day in Ghana’s Greater Accra Metropolitan Area is shaped by time in paid and unpaid work and commuting. The analysis investigates gender differences in the length of the working day and the incidence of time poverty and explores the relationship between long working days, long and arduous commutes and well-being. Women are found to be more time poor and their longer hours of unpaid household caregiving and chores and more difficult commutes have consequences for their leisure time, family-life and health.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of International Development
Early online date25 Jul 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the University of Birmingham and the University of Oxford for funding support. The authors are also grateful to Derek Ababio for operationalisation and project management in Ghana, and to Beverley Koranteng and other fieldworkers for excellent data collection and facilitation of focus group discussions.

Funding for field research was provided by the University of Birmingham under funding number [IGI‐181203 and BBS 180404] and the University of Oxford under funding number [0007630]. Ethical approval was granted by the University of Birmingham (approval number ERN_18‐2095) and the University of Oxford (SOGE 11020–05). All participants completed a consent form giving permission for their data to be used and allowing them to withdraw from the process within 30 days before the data became irrevocably anonymised. No special category data questions were asked on topics such as race, politics, religion or any other sensitive personal information.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Journal of International Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Keywords

  • commuting
  • Ghana
  • health
  • paid work
  • time poverty
  • unpaid work
  • well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development

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