The QCAE: A Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy

Renate Reniers, Rhiannon Corcoran, Richard Drake, Nick Shryane, Birgit Völlm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

262 Citations (Scopus)


Empathy has been inconsistently defined and inadequately measured. This research aimed to produce a new and rigorously developed questionnaire. Exploratory (n1 = 640) and confirmatory (n2 = 318) factor analyses were employed to develop the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Principal components analysis revealed 5 factors (31 items). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this structure in an independent sample. The hypothesized 2-factor structure (cognitive and affective empathy) was tested and provided the best and most parsimonious fit to the data. Gender differences, convergent validity, and construct validity were examined. The QCAE is a valid tool for assessing cognitive and affective empathy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-95
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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