The Incidence of Raised Procoagulant Factors and Hyperhomocysteinaemia in Chinese Patients with Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Katy Darvall, RC Sam, Donald Adam, Stanley Silverman, CD Fegan, Andrew Bradbury

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: For reasons that are poorly understood, there appear to be differences in the prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and venous thromboembolism between Caucasians and Asians. Objectives: To compare levels of procoagulant factors and homocysteine (Hcy) in Hong Kong (HK) Chinese and United Kingdom (UK) Caucasian populations of patients with CVI (patients of CEAP clinical stages C4 - C6). Methods: HK Chinese and UK Caucasian patients with CEAP clinical grade 4-6 venous disease were enrolled. Patients with conditions known to be associated with thrombophilia (TP) were excluded. UK and HK patients were matched by gender, age (within 5 years) and by CEAP clinical grade. All subjects underwent clinical examination, venous duplex ultrasound, and measurement of Hcy and factors (F) VIII, IX and XI. Results: 63 Patients were enrolled in each group: Mean age 64y (HK group); 67y (UK group). 37% were female; 19% had active venous ulceration. One-third of patients in each group had deep venous reflux. High Hcy, FIX and FXI were significantly more common in the UK group. Multiple TP was more common in the UK group: raised levels of >= 2 factors in 26 vs. 14 patients (P = 0.022, x(2)). Median Hcy (14.3 vs. 10.8 mu mol/L; P <0.0005, Wilcoxon signed rank [WSR]), FIX (131 vs. 115%; P = 0.048), and FXI (114 vs. 97%; P = 0.002) were significantly higher in the UK group. There was no significant difference in FVIII levels. Conclusions: Raised procoagulant factors were more common in Caucasians compared with Chinese patients with CVI in this study. As with the inherited thrombophilias, the pattern of raised procoagulant factors in Chinese patients appears to differ from that in Caucasians. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260-266
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2010


  • Venous ulcer
  • Thrombophilia
  • Homocysteine
  • Thrombosis
  • Chronic venous insufficiency


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