Temperature Range of Heating Rate Dependent Reactions Leading to Spinel Formation on a Ni-based Superalloy

Mary Taylor*, Daniel Calderwood, Tom Reynolds, Nils Warnken, Paul Mignanelli, Mark Hardy, David Collins

*Corresponding author for this work

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Improved oxidation kinetics for a polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy used in turbine disc applications has been shown to be possible by controlling the heating rate of the first thermal exposure to 5 °C min-1. The beneficial effect arises from the formation of a protective layer of NiCr2O4, instead of the more usually formed doped Cr2O3. This study shows that it was possible to form the NiCr2O4 at temperatures up to 725 °C, within the operational conditions for this alloy, and that at higher temperatures Cr2O3 formed. The improvements in alloy performance extended to the internal oxidation processes where reduced depths of degradation were observed. It is demonstrated here that Al2O3 formation is less thermodynamically stable when the highly protective NiCr2O4 oxide is present at the alloy surface compared to the doped Cr2O3. Synchrotron XRD was performed on samples removed during the heating stage and provided evidence of the oxidation sequence occurring, enabling refinement in the thermodynamic calculations and suggesting an additional route to the formation of the NiCr2O4.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-83
Number of pages19
JournalHigh Temperature Corrosion of Materials
Issue number1-2
Early online date24 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • NiCr2O4
  • Ni-based superalloy
  • Spinel
  • Oxidation


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