The scavenger receptor superfamily represents a highly diverse collection of evolutionarily-conserved receptors which are known to play key roles in host homeostasis, the most prominent of which is the clearance of unwanted endogenous macromolecules, such as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, from the systemic circulation. Members of this family have also been well characterized in their binding and internalization of a vast range of exogenous antigens and, consequently, are generally considered to be pattern recognition receptors, thus contributing to innate immunity. Several studies have implicated scavenger receptors in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory diseases, such as Alzheimer's and atherosclerosis. Hepatic resident cellular populations express a diverse complement of scavenger receptors in keeping with the liver's homeostatic functions, but there is gathering interest in the contribution of these receptors to hepatic inflammation and its complications. Here, we review the expression of scavenger receptors in the liver, their functionality in liver homeostasis, and their role in inflammatory liver disease and cancer.
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- scavenger receptors
- liver sinusoidal endothelial cells
- hepatocellular carcinoma