As an advanced oxidative processes, the Fenton process is receiving popularity as a wastewater treatment technique that can be used for hazardous landfill leachate. The treatment is simple, yet involves complex interactions between the affecting parameters including reaction time, H2O2/Fe2+ ratio, pH, and iron (II) ion concentration. Hence, the purpose of this present study was to analyze the factors affecting landfill leachate treatment as well as their interaction by means of response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design. The independent variables were reaction time, H2O2/Fe2+ ratio, iron (II) ion concentration, and pH, and the dependent variable (response) was color-removal percentage. The optimum treatment conditions for pH, H2O2/Fe2+ ratio, Fe2+ concentration, and reaction time were 8.36, 3.32, 964.95 mg/L, and 50.15 min, respectively. The model predicted 100% color removal in optimum conditions, which was close to that obtained from the experiment (97.68%). In conclusion, the optimized Fenton process using the RSM approach promotes efficient landfill leachate treatment that is even higher than that already reported.