High-risk non–muscle-invasive bladder cancers are heterogeneous in biomolecular characteristics and treatment options. Alterations in DNA methylation are commonplace in bladder cancer, and this systematic review highlights those genes in which methylation changes show promise for prognostication. These loci (CDH13, PCDHs, RUNX3, HOXA9, ISL1, and PAX6) should be validated in future prospective studies in order to translate benefit to patients.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Other: None. Financial disclosures: Richard T. Bryan certifies that all conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations relevant to the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript (eg, employment/affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, or patents filed, received, or pending), are the following: R.T. Bryan has contributed to advisory boards for Olympus Medical Systems with regard to narrow band imaging cystoscopy. Funding/Support and role of the sponsor: This study was funded by the University of Birmingham , UK.
© 2019 European Association of Urology
- High-risk non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer
- molecular markers
- Prognostic markers
- Systematic review
ASJC Scopus subject areas