We present a cluster dynamical mean-field treatment of the Hubbard model on a square lattice to study the evolution of magnetism and quasiparticle properties as the electron filling and interaction strength are varied. Our approach for solving the dynamical mean-field equations is an extension of Potthoff's "two-site" method [Phys. Rev. B. 64, 165114 (2001)], where the self-consistent bath is represented by a highly restricted set of states. As well as the expected antiferromagnetism close to half-filling, we observe distortions of the Fermi surface. The proximity of a van Hove point and the incipient antiferromagnetism lead to the evolution from an electronlike Fermi surface away from the Mott transition, to a holelike one near half-filling. Our results also show a gap opening anisotropically around the Fermi surface, close to the Mott transition (reminiscent of the pseudogap phenomenon seen in the cuprate high-T-c superconductors). This leaves Fermi arcs that are closed into pockets by lines with very small quasiparticle residue.