The paper considers a classic formulation of the topology optimization problem of discrete or discretized structures. The objective function to be maximized is the smallest natural frequency of the structure. We develop non-heuristic mathematical models paying special attention to the situation when some design variables take zero values. These models take into account multiple load conditions, equilibrium of forces, constraints on compliance and volume, and the effect of possible non-structural mass. We discuss serious obstacles for a successful numerical treatment of this formulation such as non-Lipschitzean behavior and even discontinuity of the objective function. As a cure, we present an equivalent reformulation as a bilinear semidefinite programming problem without the pitfalls of the original problem. An algorithm is presented for finding an approximation of a globally optimal solution up to a user-defined accuracy. The key ingredient of this algorithm is the treatment of a sequence of linear semidefinite programs. Numerical examples are provided for truss structures. Examples of both academic and larger size illustrate the theoretical results achieved and demonstrate the practical use of this approach. We conclude with an extension on multiple non-structural mass conditions.