Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from the bone marrow stroma where they constitute an adult somatic stem cell population distinct from hemapoietic stem cells. MSCs are multipotent cells in that they have the capacity to generate progeny that can differentiate into multiple cell lineages. MSCs can be explanted in vitro from bone marrow aspirates and expanded in culture where they can be induced to terminally differentiate into osteoblasts, chrondrocytes, adipocytes, tenocytes and heamapoteic supporting tissue. This ability to differentiate has also been demonstrated in vivo following transplantation into rodents. Recent work has shown that MSCs may have a broader capacity for differentiation than was previously envisioned. In some circumstances, this increased potential for differentiation may make MSCs viable alternatives to embryonic stem cells. Accordingly, the multipotential capacity of MSCs, their accessible origin, and high ex vivo expansive potential, makes these cells attractive as tools for tissue engineering and cell-based therapy. This review will explore the basic biology of MSCs derived from adult tissues and consider their isolation, culture, and differentiation. In addition, we will examine some of the potential clinical applications of these cells and consider the future perspectives of their use.
- Cell culture
- Cell isolation
- Mesenchymal stem cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine