Cognitive load theory is a leading instructional theory in research about the effectiveness of multimedia and computer-based learning. The theory is continually updating itself with new experimental findings, such as those in the six empirical papers of this special issue. Specifically, the focus of this special issue is on novel cognitive load theory approaches to optimize computer-based learning, and applied new techniques to measure cognitive load. Regarding novel cognitive load theory approaches, we categorize them around three themes: refining existing cognitive load theory guidelines, novel directions for computer-based learning, and effects of methodology on visuospatial and cognitive processing. Concerning new techniques to measure cognitive load, we describe the objective and subjective measures employed in this special issue. We finish this editorial by discussing implications for cognitive load theory research, implications for computer-based educational practice, and future research directions.