Human impacts and the global distribution of extinction risk

KJ Gaston, RG Davies, CDL Orme, V Olson, Gavin Thomas, S Ross, PC Rasmussen, AJ Stattersfield, PM Bennett, Timothy Blackburn, IPF Owens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

93 Citations (Scopus)


Understanding the global geographical distribution of extinction risk is a key challenge in conservation biology. It remains controversial, however, to what extent areas become threat hotspots simply because of high human impacts or due to predisposing ecological conditions. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent, resolution and quality of previously available data have precluded a full global assessment of the relative roles of these factors. Here, we use a new global database on the geographical distributions of birds on continents and continental islands to show that, after controlling for species richness, the best predictors of the global pattern of extinction risk are measures of human impact. Ecological gradients are of secondary importance at a global scale. The converse is true for individual biogeographic realms, within which variation in human impact is reduced and its influence on extinction risk globally is therefore underestimated. These results underline the importance of a global perspective on driving spatial patterns of extinction risk, and the key role of anthropogenic factors in driving the current extinction crisis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2127-2133
Number of pages7
JournalRoyal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sept 2006


  • extinction risk
  • threatened species
  • species richness
  • human population
  • global biodiversity


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