HSC-XXL: baryon budget of the 136 XXL groups and clusters

Daichi Akino*, Dominique Eckert, Nobuhiro Okabe, Mauro Sereno, Keiichi Umetsu, Masamune Oguri, Fabio Gastaldello, I-Non Chiu, Stefano Ettori, August E. Evrard, Arya Farahi, Ben Maughan, Marguerite Pierre, Marina Ricci, Ivan Valtchanov, Ian Mccarthy, Sean Mcgee, Satoshi Miyazaki, Atsushi J. Nishizawa, Masayuki Tanaka

*Corresponding author for this work

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We present our determination of the baryon budget for an X-ray-selected XXL sample of 136 galaxy groups and clusters spanning nearly two orders of magnitude in mass (M500 ∼ 1013–1015 M) and the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 1. Our joint analysis is based on the combination of Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) weak-lensing mass measurements, XXL X-ray gas mass measurements, and HSC and Sloan Digital Sky Survey multiband photometry. We carry out a Bayesian analysis of multivariate mass-scaling relations of gas mass, galaxy stellar mass, stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and soft-band X-ray luminosity, by taking into account the intrinsic covariance between cluster properties, selection effect, weak-lensing mass calibration, and observational error covariance matrix. The mass-dependent slope of the gas mass–total mass (M500) relation is found to be 1.29+0.16−0.10⁠, which is steeper than the self-similar prediction of unity, whereas the slope of the stellar mass–total mass relation is shallower than unity; 0.85+0.12−0.09⁠. The BCG stellar mass weakly depends on cluster mass with a slope of 0.49+0.11−0.10⁠. The baryon, gas mass, and stellar mass fractions as a function of M500 agree with the results from numerical simulations and previous observations. We successfully constrain the full intrinsic covariance of the baryonic contents. The BCG stellar mass shows the larger intrinsic scatter at a given halo total mass, followed in order by stellar mass and gas mass. We find a significant positive intrinsic correlation coefficient between total (and satellite) stellar mass and BCG stellar mass and no evidence for intrinsic correlation between gas mass and stellar mass. All the baryonic components show no redshift evolution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175–208
Number of pages34
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Issue number1
Early online date8 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

34 pages, 16 figures, 8 tables; accepted for the publication in PASJ


  • astro-ph.CO
  • astro-ph.GA


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