Fuel cells for micro-combined heat and power generation

A Hawkes, Iain Staffell, D Brett, N Brandon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

129 Citations (Scopus)


Micro-combined heat and power (CHP) holds great potential for lowering energy cost and CO2 emissions in the residential housing sector. Of the various micro-CHP technologies, fuel cells, and in particular solid oxide fuel cells, show great promise due to their high electrical efficiency and resulting low heat-to-power ratio that is better suited to residential applications. However, fuel cells are still under development and the capital cost of units available today remains high. This paper looks at the technological aspects and operating modes of fuel cells relevant to micro-CHP as well as examining the state of commercial development, life cycle issues and the techno-economics of fuel cells for micro-CHP at the residential scale.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)729-744
Number of pages16
JournalEnergy & Environmental Science
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009


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