Frailty: Pathophysiology, Theoretical and Operational Definition(s), Impact, Prevalence, Management and Prevention, in an Increasingly Economically Developed and Ageing World

Paul Doody*, Janet M. Lord, Carolyn A. Greig, Anna C. Whittaker*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

The world's population is ageing, and most older adults experience a later life burdened with disease and disability. Frailty is a multidimensional and dynamic condition characterized by declines in reserve and function across multiple physiological systems, such that the ability to cope with every day or acute stressors becomes compromised. It is projected to become one of the most serious public health challenges economically developed societies will face in the coming century. This review provides a comprehensive overview of frailty, exploring its pathophysiology, theoretical and operational definition(s), impact, prevalence, management, and prevention, within the context of its emergence as a major public health challenge, in an increasingly economically developed and ageing world. Further, this review discusses the major limitations, deficiencies, and knowledge gaps presently within the field, and future research directions pertinent to the advancement of frailty research and the promotion of healthy longevity among the increasing global population of older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)927-945
Number of pages19
JournalGerontology
Volume69
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This review was supported by the European Commission Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement (675003); of which Dr. Paul Doody was a Marie Sklodowska-Curie doctoral research fellow; Professor Anna Whittaker, Professor Janet Lord, and Professor Carolyn Greig doctoral supervisors; and Professor Anna Whittaker the grant’s principal investigator. The funding source had no role in the design, conduct, or reporting of the review, or the decision to publish the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel. This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

Keywords

  • Ageing
  • Demography
  • Exercise
  • Frailty
  • Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ageing
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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