The outcome of patients undergoing HLA-matched unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation following reduced-intensity conditioning or myeloablative regimens is reported to be equivalent; however, it is not known if the intensity of the conditioning impacts outcomes after mismatched unrelated donor transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. Eight hundred and eighty three patients receiving reduced-intensity conditioning were compared with 1041 myeloablative conditioning regimen recipients in the setting of mismatched unrelated donor transplantation. The donor graft was HLA-matched at 9/10 in 872 (83.8%) and at 8/10 in 169 (16.2%) myeloablative conditioning recipients, while in the reduced-intensity conditioning cohort, 754 (85.4%) and 129 (14.6%) were matched at 9/10 and 8/10 loci, respectively. Myeloablative conditioning regimen recipients were younger, 70% being <50 years of age compared to only 30% in the reduced-intensity conditioning group (P=0.0001). Significantly, more patients had secondary acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.04) and Karnofsky Performance Status score <90% (P=0.02) in the reduced-intensity conditioning group. Patients <50 and ≥50 years were analyzed separately. On multivariate analysis and after adjusting for differences between the two groups, reduced-intensity conditioning in patients age ≥50 years was associated with higher overall survival (HR 0.78; P=0.01), leukemia-free survival (HR 0.82; P=0.05), and decreased non-relapse mortality (HR 0.73; P=0.03). Relapse incidence (HR 0.91; P=0.51) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR 1.31; P=0.11) were, however, not significantly different. In patients <50 years old, there were no statistically significant differences in overall survival, leukemia-free survival, relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, and chronic graft-versus-host-disease between the groups. Our study shows no significant outcome differences in patients younger than 50 years receiving reduced-intensity vs myeloablative conditioning regimens after mismatched unrelated donor transplantation. Furthermore, the data support the superiority of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens in older adults receiving transplants from mismatched unrelated donors.
- allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- mismatched unrelated donor
- conditioning regimen
- acute myeloid leukemia
- graft-versus leukemia effect