Dimensional phase transition from an array of 1D Luttinger liquids to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate

Andreas Vogler*, Ralf Labouvie, Giovanni Barontini, Sebastian Eggert, Vera Guarrera, Herwig Ott

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
375 Downloads (Pure)


We study the thermodynamic properties of a 2D array of coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. The system is realized with ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in the potential tubes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. For negligible coupling strength, each tube is an independent weakly interacting 1D Bose gas featuring Tomonaga Luttinger liquid behavior. By decreasing the lattice depth, we increase the coupling strength between the 1D gases and allow for the phase transition into a 3D condensate. We extract the phase diagram for such a system and compare our results with theoretical predictions. Because of the high effective mass across the periodic potential and the increased 1D interaction strength, the phase transition is shifted to large positive values of the chemical potential. Our results are prototypical to a variety of low-dimensional systems, where the coupling between the subsystems is realized in a higher spatial dimension such as coupled spin chains in magnetic insulators.

Original languageEnglish
Article number215301
Number of pages5
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number21
Early online date17 Nov 2014
Publication statusPublished - 21 Nov 2014

Bibliographical note

5 pages, 5 pictures, final version, Phys. Rev. Lett. in print (2014)


  • cond-mat.quant-gas
  • cond-mat.mes-hall
  • cond-mat.stat-mech
  • cond-mat.str-el
  • quant-ph

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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