Development of a foot impact scale for rheumatoid arthritis

Philip Helliwell, Naomi Reay, Gill Gilworth, Anthony Redmond, Anita Slade, Alan Tennant, James Woodburn

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    92 Citations (Scopus)


    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new foot impact scale to assess foot status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using established qualitative methodology and the latest item response techniques (Rasch analysis).

    METHODS: Foot problems in RA were explored by conducting qualitative interviews that were then used to generate items for a new foot impact scale. Further validation was undertaken following postal surveys and Rasch analysis.

    RESULTS: Analysis of the first postal survey (n = 192 responses) produced a 63-item binary response, 4-subscale instrument. The 4 subscales covered the domains impairment, activities, participation, and footwear. Following test-retest postal surveys and additional analysis, the instrument was reduced to a 2 subscale, 51-item questionnaire covering the domains of impairments/shoes and activities/participation. Initial results of these subscales indicate good psychometric properties, external validity, and test-retest reliability.

    CONCLUSION: A foot impact scale to assess the impact of RA and to measure the effect of interventions has been developed. The 2 scales comprising the instrument demonstrate good psychometric properties.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)418-22
    Number of pages5
    JournalArthritis & Rheumatism
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2005


    • Adult
    • Aged
    • Aged, 80 and over
    • Arthritis, Rheumatoid
    • Data Collection
    • Female
    • Foot
    • Humans
    • Interviews as Topic
    • Male
    • Middle Aged
    • Psychometrics
    • Shoes


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