COVID-19 Vaccination Willingness and Acceptability in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Cross Sectional Study in Iran

Seyed Massood Nabavi*, Mehrnoosh Mehrabani, Leila Ghalichi, Mohammad Ali Nahayati, Mehran Ghaffari, Fereshteh Ashtari, Seyed Ehsan Mohammadianinejad, Shahedeh Karimi, Leila Faghani, Sepideh Yazdanbakhsh, Abbas Najafian, Koorosh Shahpasand, Massoud Vosough

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, predominantly immune-mediated degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Due to prolonged use of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive medications, vaccine hesitancy could be common among MS patients. Our main aim in the current study was to evaluate the willingness and acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with MS. In our multicenter cross-sectional questionnaire-based clinical study, 892 patients completed the questionnaire between May to June 2021. The questionnaire consisted of demographic data, MS disease-related factors, history of COVID-19 infection/vaccination, and any existing comorbidities. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 19. Overall, 68% of the participants expressed willingness to be vaccinated. Major causes of vaccine refusal in our patients were the fear of reducing the efficacy of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) upon vaccination as well as distrusting the vaccines and overestimation bias in the power of their innate immunity and potential COVID-19 resistance. Some demographic factors affected vaccination enthusiasm in our study. Our findings did not show significant correlation between the age and comorbidity and vaccine willingness. Only one-third of our patients received their vaccine information from healthcare providers. The majority of them received these data from official broadcasting channels and social media. However, despite several concerns, the willingness of COVD-19 vaccination in the Iranian MS patients is remarkable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number135
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • COVID-19 vaccination
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Vaccine acceptability
  • Vaccine hesitancy
  • Vaccine willingness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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