Control of T Cell Metabolism by Cytokines and Hormones

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Dynamic, coordinated changes in metabolic pathway activity underpin the protective and inflammatory activity of T cells, through provision of energy and biosynthetic precursors for effector functions, as well as direct effects of metabolic enzymes, intermediates and end-products on signaling pathways and transcriptional mechanisms. Consequently, it has become increasingly clear that the metabolic status of the tissue microenvironment directly influences T cell activity, with changes in nutrient and/or metabolite abundance leading to dysfunctional T cell metabolism and interlinked immune function. Emerging evidence now indicates that additional signals are integrated by T cells to determine their overall metabolic phenotype, including those arising from interaction with cytokines and hormones in their environment. The impact of these on T cell metabolism, the mechanisms involved and the pathological implications are discussed in this review article.

Original languageEnglish
Article number653605
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2021 Bishop, Gudgeon and Dimeloe.


  • T cell
  • cytokine
  • glycolysis
  • hormone
  • metabolism
  • mitochdonrion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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