The spatial variations in the inclusion size and distribution are examined for a free-cutting steel bloom. Chemical analysis has been carried out on the inclusions using energy- dispersive X-ray analysis and the main findings are reported. It has been observed that inclusions are often associated with a lead tail. Thus an assumption is made that the lead layer becomes liquid or gaseous at hot-forming temperatures. Based on this assumption, a micromechanical finite element model is established and used to model the damage evolution process. Microstructure examinations of hot- tensile -tested specimens are used to compare experimentally the observed inclusion shape and void growth features with those obtained from the micromechanical finite element method. It is concluded that there is no significant inclusion debonding process for the material deformed under hot-forming conditions. The damage growth is directly related to the inclusion size and spacing.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Strain Analysis|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2007|
- free-cutting steel
- micromechanical modelling
- hot forming
- damage nucleation and growth