A Novel Approach for Powder Bed Fusion of Ceramics Using Two Laser Systems

Duran Kaya, Mohamed Abdelmoula, Gokhan Kucukturk*, David Grossin, Artemis Stamboulis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The one-step AM process is considered the goal many researchers seek in the field of Additive Manufacturing (AM) of high-technology ceramics. Among the several AM techniques, only Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) can directly print high-technology ceramics using one step. However, the PBF technique faces numerous challenges to efficiently be employed in the PBF of ceramics. These challenges include the formation of cracks, generated thermal stress, effective laser–powder interaction, and low acquired relative density. This study developed a new preheating mechanism for ceramic materials using two laser systems to surpass beyond these challenges and successfully print ceramics with a single-step AM method. One laser is used to preheat the powder particles before the second laser is utilised to complete the melting/sintering process. Both lasers travel along the same scanning path. There is a slight delay (0.0001 s) between the preheating laser and the melting/sintering laser to guarantee that the melting/sintering laser scans a properly preheated powder. To further facilitate testing of the preheating system, a numerical model has been developed to simulate the preheating and melting process and to acquire proper process parameters. The developed numerical model was shown to determine the correct process parameters without needing costly and time-consuming experiments. Alumina samples (10 × 10 × 6 mm3) were successfully printed using alumina powder as feedstock. The surface of the samples was nearly defect-free. The samples’ relative densities exceeded 80%, the highest reported relative density for alumina produced by a single-step AM method. This discovery can significantly accelerate the transition to a one-step AM process of ceramics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2507
Number of pages19
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2023


  • PBF
  • preheating
  • alumina
  • simulation
  • process parameters
  • Article


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