Why do pens have rubbery grips?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Standard

Why do pens have rubbery grips? / Adams, Michael; Dzidek, Brygida; Bochereau, Serena; Johnson, Simon; Hayward, Vincent.

In: National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings, Vol. 114, No. 41, 10.10.2017, p. 10864-10869.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Adams, M, Dzidek, B, Bochereau, S, Johnson, S & Hayward, V 2017, 'Why do pens have rubbery grips?', National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings, vol. 114, no. 41, pp. 10864-10869. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706233114

APA

Adams, M., Dzidek, B., Bochereau, S., Johnson, S., & Hayward, V. (2017). Why do pens have rubbery grips? National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings, 114(41), 10864-10869. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706233114

Vancouver

Adams M, Dzidek B, Bochereau S, Johnson S, Hayward V. Why do pens have rubbery grips? National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings. 2017 Oct 10;114(41):10864-10869. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706233114

Author

Adams, Michael ; Dzidek, Brygida ; Bochereau, Serena ; Johnson, Simon ; Hayward, Vincent. / Why do pens have rubbery grips?. In: National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings. 2017 ; Vol. 114, No. 41. pp. 10864-10869.

Bibtex

@article{41529aa674aa483da0c744b27c48532d,
title = "Why do pens have rubbery grips?",
abstract = "The process by which human fingers gives rise to stable contacts with smooth, hard objects is surprisingly slow. Using high-resolution imaging, we found that, when pressed against glass, the actual contact made by finger pad ridges evolved over time following a first-order kinetics relationship. This evolution was the result of a two-stage coalescence process of microscopic junctions made between the keratin of the stratum corneum of the skin and the glass surface. This process was driven by the secretion of moisture from the sweat glands, since increased hydration in stratum corneum causes it to become softer. Saturation was typically reached within 20 s of loading the contact, regardless of the initial moisture state of the finger and of the normal force applied. Hence, the gross contact area, frequently used as a benchmark quantity in grip and perceptual studies, is a poor reflection of the actual contact mechanics that take place between human fingers and smooth, impermeable surfaces. In contrast, the formation of a steady-state contact area is almost instantaneous if the counter surface is soft relative to keratin in a dry state. It is for this reason that elastomers are commonly used to coat grip surfaces.",
keywords = "Finger friction, True contact area kinetics, Biotribology, Fingerprints",
author = "Michael Adams and Brygida Dzidek and Serena Bochereau and Simon Johnson and Vincent Hayward",
year = "2017",
month = oct,
day = "10",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1706233114",
language = "English",
volume = "114",
pages = "10864--10869",
journal = "National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings",
issn = "1091-6490",
publisher = "National Academy of Sciences",
number = "41",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Why do pens have rubbery grips?

AU - Adams, Michael

AU - Dzidek, Brygida

AU - Bochereau, Serena

AU - Johnson, Simon

AU - Hayward, Vincent

PY - 2017/10/10

Y1 - 2017/10/10

N2 - The process by which human fingers gives rise to stable contacts with smooth, hard objects is surprisingly slow. Using high-resolution imaging, we found that, when pressed against glass, the actual contact made by finger pad ridges evolved over time following a first-order kinetics relationship. This evolution was the result of a two-stage coalescence process of microscopic junctions made between the keratin of the stratum corneum of the skin and the glass surface. This process was driven by the secretion of moisture from the sweat glands, since increased hydration in stratum corneum causes it to become softer. Saturation was typically reached within 20 s of loading the contact, regardless of the initial moisture state of the finger and of the normal force applied. Hence, the gross contact area, frequently used as a benchmark quantity in grip and perceptual studies, is a poor reflection of the actual contact mechanics that take place between human fingers and smooth, impermeable surfaces. In contrast, the formation of a steady-state contact area is almost instantaneous if the counter surface is soft relative to keratin in a dry state. It is for this reason that elastomers are commonly used to coat grip surfaces.

AB - The process by which human fingers gives rise to stable contacts with smooth, hard objects is surprisingly slow. Using high-resolution imaging, we found that, when pressed against glass, the actual contact made by finger pad ridges evolved over time following a first-order kinetics relationship. This evolution was the result of a two-stage coalescence process of microscopic junctions made between the keratin of the stratum corneum of the skin and the glass surface. This process was driven by the secretion of moisture from the sweat glands, since increased hydration in stratum corneum causes it to become softer. Saturation was typically reached within 20 s of loading the contact, regardless of the initial moisture state of the finger and of the normal force applied. Hence, the gross contact area, frequently used as a benchmark quantity in grip and perceptual studies, is a poor reflection of the actual contact mechanics that take place between human fingers and smooth, impermeable surfaces. In contrast, the formation of a steady-state contact area is almost instantaneous if the counter surface is soft relative to keratin in a dry state. It is for this reason that elastomers are commonly used to coat grip surfaces.

KW - Finger friction

KW - True contact area kinetics

KW - Biotribology

KW - Fingerprints

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1706233114

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1706233114

M3 - Article

VL - 114

SP - 10864

EP - 10869

JO - National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings

JF - National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings

SN - 1091-6490

IS - 41

ER -