Visuomotor tracking with delayed visual feedback

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


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  • University of Oxford
  • Imperial College London


A rhesus monkey and five human subjects used a hand-held joystick to track unpredictable continuously moving targets. Both monkey and human respond by making discrete ("step-and-hold") corrections of positional error, at an average frequency of 1.33 and 2.26 movements/second, respectively. By delaying visual feedback of joystick position, we could reduce these frequencies in a predictable manner. These results imply that the primate visuomotor system probably does not operate as a "sampled-data mechanism" governed by an asynchronous clock, but that inevitable delays in visuomotor feedback control determine the frequency of corrective movements.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-520
Number of pages10
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1985

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