Violet-blue light arrays at 405 nanometers exert enhanced antimicrobial activity for photodisinfection of monomicrobial nosocomial biofilms

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

External organisations

  • University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust
  • University of Birmingham

Abstract

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) demonstrate therapeutic effects for a range of biomedical applications, including photodisinfection. Bands of specific wavelengths (centered at 405 nm) are reported to be the most antimicrobial; however, there remains no consensus on the most effective irradiation parameters for optimal photodisinfection. The aim of this study was to assess decontamination efficiency by direct photodisinfection of monomicrobial biofilms using a violet-blue light (VBL) single-wavelength array (SWA) and multiwavelength array (MWA). Mature biofilms of nosocomial bacteria ( Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) were grown on 96-well polypropylene PCR plates. The biofilms were then exposed to VBL for 2,700 s (SWA) and 1,170 s (MWA) to deliver 0 to 670 J/cm 2, and the antibacterial activity of VBL was assessed by comparing the seeding of the irradiated and the nonirradiated biofilms. Nonirradiated groups were used as controls. The VBL arrays were characterized optically (spectral irradiance and beam profile) and thermally. The SWA delivered 401-nm VBL and the MWA delivered between 379-nm and 452-nm VBL, albeit at different irradiances and with different beam profiles. In both arrays, the irradiated groups were exposed to increased temperatures compared to the nonirradiated controls. All bacterial isolates were susceptible to VBL and demonstrated reductions in the seeding of exposed biofilms compared with the nonirradiated controls. VBL at 405 nm exerted the most antimicrobial activity, exhibiting reductions in seeding of up to 94%. Decontamination efficiency is dependent on the irradiation parameters, bacterial species and strain, and experimental conditions. Controlled experiments that ameliorate the heating effects and improve the optical properties are required to optimize the dosing parameters to advance the successful clinical translation of this technology. IMPORTANCE This study reports the efficacy of VBL and blue light (BL) and their antimicrobial activity against mature biofilms of a range of important nosocomial pathogens. While this study investigated the antibacterial activity of a range of wavelengths of between 375 and 450 nm and identified a specific wavelength region (∼405 nm) with increased antibacterial activity, decontamination was dependent on the bacterial species, strain, irradiation parameters, and experimental conditions. Further research with controlled experiments that ameliorate the heating effects and improve the optical properties are required to optimize the dosing parameters to advance the successful clinical translation of this technology.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article number e01346-19
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume85
Issue number21
Early online date16 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

Keywords

  • phototherapy, decontamination, photodisinfection, wound