VEGF-E activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase to induce angiogenesis via cGMP and PKG-independent pathways

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Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), which binds to both VEGF receptor-1 (Flt1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1), requires nitric oxide (NO) to induce angiogenesis in a cGMP-dependent manner. Here we show that VEGF-E, a VEGFR-2-selective ligand stimulates NO release and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Inhibition of phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma) with U73122 abrogated VEGF-E induced endothelial cell migration, tube formation and NO release. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) using L-NNA blocked VEGF-E-induced NO release and angiogenesis. Pre-incubation of HUVEC with the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, or the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, KT-5823, had no effect on angiogenesis suggesting that the action of VEGF-E is cGMP-independent. Our data provide the first demonstration that VEGFR-2-mediated NO signaling and subsequent angiogenesis is through a mechanism that is dependent on PLC gamma but independent of cGMP and PKG. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1275-82
Number of pages8
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2006


  • nitric oxide, cGMP, VEGF, VEGFR-2 (KDR), angiogenesis, PKG