Upgraded biofuel from residue biomass by Thermo-Catalytic Reforming and hydrodeoxygenation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Johannes Neumann
  • Nils Jäger
  • Andreas Apfelbacher
  • Robert Daschner
  • Samir Binder

Colleges, School and Institutes


Research is focused on the utilisation of waste or residue biomass for bioenergy conversion. A promising conversion technology for the production of liquid biofuels from residue biomass is a process called Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®​) which is a combination of prior thermal treatment of the biomass at mild temperatures (intermediate pyrolysis) followed by a second catalytic treatment step at elevated temperatures (reforming). This article focuses on the conversion of TCR® liquids from digestate as a feedstock for subsequent hydrocarbon production. The generated bio-oil showed a lower heating value of 34.0 MJ kg−1 with an oxygen content of 7.0% and a water content of 2.2%. The bio-oil was hydrodeoxygenated using an industrial NiMo–Al2O3 catalyst at temperatures of 503 K–643 K and a pressure of 14 MPa. The hydrodeoxygenated bio-oil reached a lower heating value of 42.3 MJ kg−1 with an oxygen content below 0.8 mg kg−1 and water content of 30 ppm. Product yields and catalyst life give confidence that upgrading of the TCR®​ bio-oil offers a suitable option to meet the high standards of common fuels.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-97
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
Early online date24 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016


  • Hydrodeoxygenation, Digestate, Thermo-Catalytic Reforming, Intermediate pyrolysis, Biofuel, Pyrolysis oil