Tranexamic acid to reduce head injury death in people with traumatic brain injury: the CRASH-3 international RCT

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Ian Roberts
  • Haleema Shakur-Still
  • Amy Aeron-Thomas
  • Danielle Beaumont
  • Amy Brenner
  • Madeleine Cargill
  • Rizwana Chaudhri
  • Nicolas Douglas
  • Lauren Frimley
  • Catherine Gilliam
  • Amber Geer
  • Zahra Jamal
  • Rashid Jooma
  • Raoul Mansukhani
  • Alec Miners
  • Jason Pott
  • Danielle Prowse
  • Temitayo Shokunbi
  • Jack Williams

Colleges, School and Institutes


Background: Tranexamic acid safely reduces mortality in traumatic extracranial bleeding. Intracranial bleeding is common after traumatic brain injury and can cause brain herniation and death. We assessed the effects of tranexamic acid in traumatic brain injury patients.

Objective: To assess the effects of tranexamic acid on death, disability and vascular occlusive events in traumatic brain injury patients. We also assessed cost-effectiveness.

Design: Randomised trial and economic evaluation. Patients were assigned by selecting a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Patients, caregivers and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. All analyses were by intention to treat. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid versus no treatment from a UK NHS perspective using the trial results and a Markov model.

Setting: 175 hospitals in 29 countries.

Participants: Adults with traumatic brain injury within 3 hours of injury with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of ≤ 12 or any intracranial bleeding on computerised tomography scan, and no major extracranial bleeding, were eligible.

Intervention: Tranexamic acid (loading dose 1 g over 10 minutes then infusion of 1 g over 8 hours) or matching placebo.

Main outcome measures: Head injury death in hospital within 28 days of injury in patients treated within 3 hours of injury. Secondary outcomes were early head injury deaths, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, disability, vascular occlusive events, seizures, complications and adverse events.

Results: Among patients treated within 3 hours of injury (n = 9127), the risk of head injury death was 18.5% in the tranexamic acid group versus 19.8% in the placebo group (855/4613 vs. 892/4514; risk ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.02). In a prespecified analysis excluding patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 or bilateral unreactive pupils at baseline, the results were 12.5% in the tranexamic acid group versus 14.0% in the placebo group (485/3880 vs. 525/3757; risk ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.00). There was a reduction in the risk of head injury death with tranexamic acid in those with mild to moderate head injury (166/2846 vs. 207/2769; risk ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.95), but in those with severe head injury (689/1739 vs. 685/1710; risk ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.07) there was no apparent reduction (p-value for heterogeneity = 0.030). Early treatment was more effective in mild and moderate head injury (p = 0.005), but there was no obvious impact of time to treatment in cases of severe head injury (p = 0.73). The risk of disability, vascular occlusive events and seizures was similar in both groups. Tranexamic acid is highly cost-effective for mild and moderate traumatic brain injury (base case of £4288 per quality-adjusted life-year gained).

Conclusion: Early tranexamic acid treatment reduces head injury deaths. Treatment is cost-effective for patients with mild or moderate traumatic brain injury, or those with both pupils reactive.

Future work: Further trials should examine early tranexamic acid treatment in mild head injury. Research on alternative routes of administration is needed.

Limitations: Time to treatment may have been underestimated.

Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15088122, NCT01402882, EudraCT 2011-003669-14, Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR20121000441277.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-106
Number of pages106
JournalHealth Technology Assessment
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2021