“TikTok is my life and SnapChat is my ventricle”: a mixed-methods study on the role of online communication tools for friendships in early adolescents

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Gloria Mitmann
  • Sylvia Dörfler
  • Ina Krammer
  • Isabella Pollak
  • Beate Schrank

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences


Early adolescents are frequent users of online communication tools (OCTs). Yet, we have limited knowledge about how OCTs influence this population and their friendships. We sought opinions of 938 Austrian early adolescents on the role of OCTs for their friendships via a questionnaire and 207 focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. We found that despite the emergence of some online-specific aggression, OCTs are perceived as beneficial for friendships. Early adolescents use online spaces naturally and differentiate little between online and offline communication. Only when it comes to high levels of intimacy, early adolescents also need an offline setting to fulfill their communication need. Online communication tools, especially newer forms such as online gaming, can surpass a mere communicative function and provide a space for building and maintaining friendships. In the future, OCTs should be considered as a tool to facilitate positive development in early adolescents.


Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of Early Asolescence
Early online date2 Jun 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Jun 2021