Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • THAPCA Trial Investigators
  • F. W. Moler
  • F. S. Silverstein
  • R. Holubkov
  • B. S. Slomine
  • J. R. Christensen
  • V. M. Nadkarni
  • K. L. Meert
  • B. Browning
  • V. L. Pemberton
  • K. Page
  • M. R. Gildea
  • Barney Scholefield
  • S. Shankaran
  • J. S. Hutchison
  • J. T. Berger
  • G. Ofori-Amanfo
  • C. J.L. Newth
  • A. Topjian
  • K. S. Bennett
  • J. D. Koch
  • N. Pham
  • N. K. Chanani
  • J. A. Pineda
  • R. Harrison
  • H. J. Dalton
  • J. Alten
  • C. L. Schleien
  • D. M. Goodman
  • J. J. Zimmerman
  • U. S. Bhalala
  • A. J. Schwarz
  • M. B. Porter
  • S. Shah
  • E. L. Fink
  • P. McQuillen
  • T. Wu
  • S. Skellett
  • N. J. Thomas
  • J. E. Nowak
  • P. B. Baines
  • J. Pappachan
  • M. Mathur
  • E. Lloyd
  • E. W. Van Der Jagt
  • E. L. Dobyns
  • M. T. Meyer
  • R. C. Sanders
  • A. E. Clark
  • J. M. Dean

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Michigan
  • University of Utah
  • Kennedy Krieger Institute
  • Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
  • Wayne State University
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
  • Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust,
  • University of Toronto
  • Children's National Medical Center
  • Duke Children's Hospital
  • Mattel Children's Hospital UCLA
  • University of Texas Southwestern Medical School
  • Children's Healthcare of Atlanta
  • University of Washington
  • Phoenix Children's Hospital
  • Columbia University Medical Center
  • Ann and Robert Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
  • Seattle Children's Hospital
  • Johns Hopkins Children's Center
  • Children's Hospital of Orange County
  • University of Louisville
  • University of Tennessee Health Science Center
  • University of Pittsburgh
  • University of California
  • University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio
  • University College London
  • Penn State Children's Hospital
  • Children's Hospital and Clinics of Minnesota
  • Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust
  • University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust
  • Loma Linda University Children's Hospital
  • Nationwide Children's Hospital
  • Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong
  • Children's Hospital Colorado
  • Medical College of Wisconsin
  • Arkansas Children's Hospital


BACKGROUND Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after inhospital cardiac arrest are limited. METHODS In a trial conducted at 37 children's hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. RESULTS The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P = 0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P = 0.56). The incidences of blood-product use, infection, and serious adverse events, as well as 28-day mortality, did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS Among comatose children who survived in-hospital cardiac arrest, therapeutic hypothermia, as compared with therapeutic normothermia, did not confer a significant benefit in survival with a favorable functional outcome at 1 year.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)318-329
Number of pages12
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jan 2017

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