The task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire: Testing for measurement invariance and latent mean differences in Spanish and Portuguese Adolescents

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Isabel Castillo
  • Tomas Ines
  • Isabel Balaguer
  • Antonio M. Fonseca
  • Dias Claudia

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Unviersity of Valencia
  • University of Porto
  • University of Valencia


Within the theoretical framework of achievement goals (Nicholls, 1989), Duda and Nicholls (see Duda, 1989; Duda&Whitehead, 1998) developed theTask and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) to assess individual differences in achievement goal orientations. This study searches for validity evidence of the TEOSQ in the case of Spanish (2473) and Portuguese (2486) junior high school. The results showed that factor structure, factor loadings, and intercepts could be considered invariant across groups. Between group differences in latent means showed slightly higher mean scores for the Spanish group for both factors. The results also provide high support for the internal consistency of both the Spanish and Portuguese versions of this scale.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-32
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Testing
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • achievement goal theory, motivational orientations, measurement invariance, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, adolescents, TEOSQ