The simultaneous type, serial token model of temporal attention and working memory

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Colleges, School and Institutes


A detailed description of the simultaneous type, serial token (ST2) model is presented. ST2 is a model of temporal attention and working memory that encapsulates 5 principles: (a) M. M. Chun and M. C. Potter's (1995) 2-stage model, (b) a Stage 1 salience filter, (c) N. G. Kanwisher's (1987, 1991) types-tokens distinction, (d) a transient attentional enhancement, and (e) a mechanism for associating types with tokens called the binding pool. The authors instantiate this theoretical position in a connectionist implementation, called neural-ST2, which they illustrate by modeling temporal attention results focused on the attentional blink (AB). They demonstrate that the ST2 model explains a spectrum of AB findings. Furthermore, they highlight a number of new temporal attention predictions arising from the ST2 theory, which are tested in a series of behavioral experiments. Finally, the authors review major AB models and theories and compare them with ST2.

Bibliographic note

((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-70
Number of pages33
JournalPsychological Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007


  • Attention, Blinking, Humans, Memory, Models, Psychological, Nerve Net, Time Factors