The severity of human peri-implantitis lesions correlates with the level of submucosal microbial dysbiosis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Claudia Hülsmann
  • Stefan Fickl
  • Thomas Spinell
  • Fabian Huttig
  • Frederic Kaufmann
  • Andre Heimbach
  • Per Hoffmann
  • Norbert Enkling
  • Stefan Renvert
  • Frank Schwarz
  • Ryan T Demmer
  • Panos N Papapanou
  • Soren Jepsen

Colleges, School and Institutes


Aim: To cross‐sectionally analyse the submucosal microbiome of peri‐implantitis (PI) lesions at different severity levels.

Materials and Methods: Microbial signatures of 45 submucosal plaque samples from untreated PI lesions obtained from 30 non‐smoking, systemically healthy subjects were assessed by 16s sequencing. Linear mixed models were used to identify taxa with differential abundance by probing depth, after correction for age, gender, and multiple samples per subject. Network analyses were performed to identify groups of taxa with mutual occurrence or exclusion. Subsequently, the effects of peri‐implant probing depth on submucosal microbial dysbiosis were calculated using the microbial dysbiosis index.

Results: In total, we identified 337 different taxa in the submucosal microbiome of PI. Total abundance of 12 taxa correlated significantly with increasing probing depth; a significant relationship with lower probing depth was found for 16 taxa. Network analysis identified two mutually exclusive complexes associated with shallow pockets and deeper pockets, respectively. Deeper peri‐implant pockets were associated with significantly increased dysbiosis.

Conclusion: Increases in peri‐implant pocket depth are associated with substantial changes in the submucosal microbiome and increasing levels of dysbiosis.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1498-1509
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number12
Early online date20 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


  • 16s, dysbiosis, microbiome, next‐generation sequencing, peri‐implant disease, peri‐implantitis