The Role and Impact of Extracellular Vesicles in the Modulation and Delivery of Cytokines during Autoimmunity

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Queen Mary University
  • University of Birmingham


Cytokines and extracellular vesicles are two methods of initiating and maintaining cellular crosstalk. The role of cytokines in the initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammation has been well studied and more so, their pathophysiological role in the development of autoimmune disease. In recent years, the impact of extracellular vesicles on the progression of autoimmunity has become more widely appreciated. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that allow extracellular vesicles of various sources to modulate cytokine production, and release, and how extracellular vesicles might be involved in the direct delivery and modulation of cytokine levels. Moreover, we explore what challenges are faced by current therapies and the promising future for extracellular vesicles as therapeutic agents in conditions driven by immune dysregulation.


Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sep 2020