The resting coronal and sagittal stance position of the torso in adolescents with and without spinal deformity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Adrian Gardner
  • James Archer
  • Fiona Berryman
  • Paul Pynsent

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Department of Physiotherapy, The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust


The purpose of this work is to identify the resting stance of the torso, defined as the position of the C7 vertebral body relative to the sacrum in a 'birds eye view', as the coronal and sagittal offset, in those without spinal deformity, those with pre and post-operative AIS, and those with Scheuermann's kyphosis (SK). Using ISIS2 surface topography, the coronal and sagittal offset were measured in a prospective manner in all groups. With bivariate ellipses, a mean and 95% confidence ellipse of the data was developed. Statistical analyses was performed to examine the distribution of the data from the groups. A graphical representation of the data was developed. There were 829 without spinal deformity, 289 in both the pre and post-operative with AIS and 59 with SK. The results showed that the mean coronal offset for all groups was between 2 and 6 mm and the sagittal offset was 12 and 26 mm. Statistically significance was seen for both measures between the non-scoliotic and both AIS groups, along with the pre-operative AIS coronal offset and post-operative AIS sagittal offset and the SK measures. However, all mean values were within the 95% confidence ellipse for all of the groups. Regardless of the size or type of spinal deformity, the position of the C7 vertebral body and sacrum remain within the 95% confidence ellipse of that seen in those without spinal deformity. This work defines the Minimally Clinically Important Difference for all of the groups.


Original languageEnglish
Article number2354
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jan 2021