The PLATO 2.0 mission

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Authors

  • H. Rauer
  • C. Catala
  • C. Aerts
  • T. Appourchaux
  • W. Benz
  • A. Brandeker
  • J. Christensen-Dalsgaard
  • M. Deleuil
  • L. Gizon
  • M. J. Goupil
  • M. Güdel
  • E. Janot-Pacheco
  • M. Mas-Hesse
  • I. Pagano
  • G. Piotto
  • D. Pollacco
  • C. Santos
  • A. Smith
  • J. C. Suárez
  • R. Szabó
  • S. Udry
  • V. Adibekyan
  • Y. Alibert
  • J. M. Almenara
  • P. Amaro-Seoane
  • M. Ammler von Eiff
  • M. Asplund
  • E. Antonello
  • S. Barnes
  • F. Baudin
  • K. Belkacem
  • M. Bergemann
  • G. Bihain
  • A. C. Birch
  • X. Bonfils
  • I. Boisse
  • A. S. Bonomo
  • F. Borsa
  • I. M. Brandão
  • E. Brocato
  • S. Brun
  • M. Burleigh
  • R. Burston
  • J. Cabrera
  • S. Cassisi
  • S. Charpinet
  • C. Chiappini
  • R. P. Church
  • S. Csizmadia
  • M. Cunha
  • M. Damasso
  • M. B. Davies
  • H. J. Deeg
  • R. F. Díaz
  • S. Dreizler
  • C. Dreyer
  • P. Eggenberger
  • D. Ehrenreich
  • P. Eigmüller
  • A. Erikson
  • R. Farmer
  • S. Feltzing
  • F. de Oliveira Fialho
  • P. Figueira
  • T. Forveille
  • M. Fridlund
  • R. A. García
  • P. Giommi
  • G. Giuffrida
  • M. Godolt
  • J. Gomes da Silva
  • T. Granzer
  • J. L. Grenfell
  • A. Grotsch-Noels
  • E. Günther
  • C. A. Haswell
  • A. P. Hatzes
  • G. Hébrard
  • S. Hekker
  • R. Helled
  • K. Heng
  • J. M. Jenkins
  • A. Johansen
  • M. L. Khodachenko
  • K. G. Kislyakova
  • W. Kley
  • U. Kolb
  • N. Krivova
  • F. Kupka
  • H. Lammer
  • A. F. Lanza
  • Y. Lebreton
  • D. Magrin
  • P. Marcos-Arenal
  • P. M. Marrese
  • J. P. Marques
  • J. Martins
  • S. Mathis
  • S. Mathur
  • S. Messina
  • J. Montalban
  • M. Montalto
  • M. J. P. F. G. Monteiro
  • H. Moradi
  • E. Moravveji
  • C. Mordasini
  • T. Morel
  • A. Mortier
  • V. Nascimbeni
  • R. P. Nelson
  • M. B. Nielsen
  • L. Noack
  • A. J. Norton
  • A. Ofir
  • M. Oshagh
  • R. M. Ouazzani
  • P. Pápics
  • V. C. Parro
  • P. Petit
  • B. Plez
  • E. Poretti
  • A. Quirrenbach
  • R. Ragazzoni
  • G. Raimondo
  • M. Rainer
  • R. Redmer
  • S. Reffert
  • B. Rojas-Ayala
  • I. W. Roxburgh
  • S. Salmon
  • A. Santerne
  • J. Schneider
  • J. Schou
  • S. Schuh
  • H. Schunker
  • A. Silva-Valio
  • R. Silvotti
  • I. Skillen
  • I. Snellen
  • F. Sohl
  • S. G. Sousa
  • A. Sozzetti
  • D. Stello
  • K. G. Strassmeier
  • M. Švanda
  • Gy M. Szabó
  • A. Tkachenko
  • D. Valencia
  • V. Van Grootel
  • S. D. Vauclair
  • P. Ventura
  • F. W. Wagner
  • N. A. Walton
  • J. Weingrill
  • S. C. Werner
  • P. J. Wheatley
  • K. Zwintz

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • University College London
  • Open University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova
  • NASA Ames Research Center
  • INAF Osservatorio Astronomico Brera
  • Aarhus Universitet
  • University of Sydney
  • Monash University
  • University of Amsterdam
  • INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma
  • University of Warwick
  • Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für, Gravitationsphysik
  • Queen Mary, University of London
  • Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria ; Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
  • INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania
  • Tel Aviv University
  • CEA Saclay
  • Charles University
  • University of Leicester
  • Australian National University
  • Catholic University of Leuven
  • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS)
  • Université Paris Denis Diderot
  • Stockholm University
  • Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung
  • University of Vienna
  • Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA)
  • Università degli studi di Padova
  • Universidade do Porto
  • University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
  • Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), CP3004, Granada, Spain
  • Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève
  • Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, CNRS, 14 avenue E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France ; Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31400 Toulouse, France
  • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC)
  • University of Surrey
  • Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique de l'Université de Liège
  • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  • Department of Geology and Geophysics
  • SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
  • Theoretical Astrophysics (TAT) Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
  • Leiden University
  • University of Oslo
  • Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center
  • Berlin University of Technology
  • LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, UPMC, University Paris-Diderot
  • Center for Space and Habitability
  • University of Bern
  • Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center
  • Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille
  • Georg August Universitaet
  • Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas - IAG/USP
  • Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia 'Galileo Galilei'
  • Mullard Space Science Laboratory
  • Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Science
  • Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg
  • Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics
  • Observatoire de Grenoble
  • INAF - Osservatorio Aastrofisico di Torino
  • CEA, DSM/IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique
  • INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo
  • Lund Observatory
  • Laboratory of Automation and Control
  • Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo
  • ASI Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc
  • Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie
  • Sterrenkundig Instituut Anton Pannekoek
  • Austrian Academy of Sciences
  • Institut für Astronomie and Astrophysik
  • Fakultät für Mathematik
  • Universität Wien
  • INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Padova
  • Space Science Institute
  • Planet and Star Formation Department, Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
  • Royal Observatory of Belgium
  • Instituto Mauá de Tecnologia
  • Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier
  • ZAH, Landessternwarte, Universität Heidelberg
  • University of Rostock
  • CRAAM - Mackenzie University
  • Isaac Newton Group
  • Leiden Observatory Research Institute
  • Astronomical Institute, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
  • ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory
  • Comparative Planetology, Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics
  • Institute for Astronomy
  • Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées

Abstract

PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, including potentially habitable planets? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes (32 with 25 s readout cadence and 2 with 2.5 s candence) providing a wide field-of-view (2232 deg 2) and a large photometric magnitude range (4-16 mag). It focusses on bright (4-11 mag) stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for these bright stars to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2 %, 4-10 % and 10 % for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The planned baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars and an additional step-and-stare phase to cover in total about 50 % of the sky. PLATO 2.0 will observe up to 1,000,000 stars and detect and characterize hundreds of small planets, and thousands of planets in the Neptune to gas giant regime out to the HZ. It will therefore provide the first large-scale catalogue of bulk characterized planets with accurate radii, masses, mean densities and ages. This catalogue will include terrestrial planets at intermediate orbital distances, where surface temperatures are moderate. Coverage of this parameter range with statistical numbers of bulk characterized planets is unique to PLATO 2.0. The PLATO 2.0 catalogue allows us to e.g.: - complete our knowledge of planet diversity for low-mass objects, - correlate the planet mean density-orbital distance distribution with predictions from planet formation theories,- constrain the influence of planet migration and scattering on the architecture of multiple systems, and - specify how planet and system parameters change with host star characteristics, such as type, metallicity and age. The catalogue will allow us to study planets and planetary systems at different evolutionary phases. It will further provide a census for small, low-mass planets. This will serve to identify objects which retained their primordial hydrogen atmosphere and in general the typical characteristics of planets in such low-mass, low-density range. Planets detected by PLATO 2.0 will orbit bright stars and many of them will be targets for future atmosphere spectroscopy exploring their atmosphere. Furthermore, the mission has the potential to detect exomoons, planetary rings, binary and Trojan planets. The planetary science possible with PLATO 2.0 is complemented by its impact on stellar and galactic science via asteroseismology as well as light curves of all kinds of variable stars, together with observations of stellar clusters of different ages. This will allow us to improve stellar models and study stellar activity. A large number of well-known ages from red giant stars will probe the structure and evolution of our Galaxy. Asteroseismic ages of bright stars for different phases of stellar evolution allow calibrating stellar age-rotation relationships. Together with the results of ESA's Gaia mission, the results of PLATO 2.0 will provide a huge legacy to planetary, stellar and galactic science.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249–330
JournalExperimental Astronomy
Volume38
Early online date4 Sep 2014
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014

Keywords

  • Asteroseismology, Exoplanetary science, Exoplanets, Stellar science, Transit survey