The Hope and Adaptation Scale (HAS): Establishing Face and Content Validity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Simon Rosenbaum
  • Tracey Elder
  • Derek Kyte
  • Brendon Stubbs
  • Laura Hemmings
  • Johnny Collett
  • Helen Dawes

External organisations

  • King's College London
  • Oxford Brookes University


Purpose: To develop and test the face and content validity of a scale that assesses an individual’s
adaptation and expression of hope to a life changing events, disease or trauma. Method: The Hope and Adaptation Scale was developed and tested across three stages. Stage 1 involved the use of a review of literature to conceptually map the tool. Stage 2 required exploratory investigations of the questionnaire by members of an expert panel. Stage 3 assessed the construct validity of the resulting scale.
Results: Through the processes of Stage 1 and 2, the tool was developed and reduced
to a 3-item scale that assessed a spectrum of hope-related responses and a spectrum of adaptation-related responses. Stage 3 identified fifteen independent health care professionals who assessed the scale. The content validity index of the resultant scale was 0.6 that was above the required level to be acceptable. The hope spectrum responses scored the highest content validity ratio (0.73). Discussion: The proposed scale appears to have face and content validity for application to a various number of events, disease or trauma experiences. Further testing of the scale is required
for application in specific population groups.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalOpen Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation
Early online date10 May 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016


  • Hope, Scale, Validation