The effects of candesartan and ramipril on adrenal catecholamine release in anaesthetized dogs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • L Critchley
  • BG Ding
  • B Fok
  • DQ Wang
  • B Tomlinson
  • AE James
  • JAJH Critchley


We have investigated the effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist candesartan, and the angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril, on catecholamine release from the anaesthetized dog's adrenal gland. These drugs were given systemically in low and high doses. The gland was stimulated electrically (0.5-12 Hz) and by angiotensin II infusion (40 ng/kg/min). Electrical stimulation resulted in frequency-dependent increases in catecholamine release. Candesartan (0.8, 4.0 mg/kg) and ramipril (0.125, 0.625 mg/kg) increased basal catecholamine release along with decreases in blood pressure. Both drugs diminished direct nerve stimulation-induced catecholamine release. When both drugs were combined, their inhibitory effect was slightly enhanced. Candesartan blocked catecholamine release induced by angiotensin II. Ramipril was not tested in this respect. The percentage of noradrenaline released during electrical stimulation of the gland remained constant and ranged from 14% to 22%. Both drugs appear to act by blocking local modulation of catecholamine release by the chromaffin cells.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-75
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmacology
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2004