The effect of limonene on the crystallization of cocoa butter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Joydeep Ray
  • William MacNaughtan
  • Peng Siong Chong
  • Josélio Vieira
  • Bettina Wolf

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Nottingham
  • Loughborough University
  • Nestlé Product Technology Centre York


The formulation of reduced fat chocolate has been of interest to the confectionery industry for a considerable time. It presents a challenge, as fat reduction strategies are often accompanied by poor quality of the formulated product due to an increased viscosity of the molten chocolate. This causes difficulties during processing and poor sensory properties of the final product. The addition of limonene to chocolates leads to fat reduced chocolates that are less hard and have a lower melt viscosity. This study was undertaken to shed light on the changes produced by the addition of limonene on the crystallization and microstructure of cocoa butter. Based on evidence obtained by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy, it is proposed that the presence of limonene enhances the production of lower polymorphic forms on cooling but accelerates the transformation to more stable polymorphic forms. This is demonstrated in the transformation of the α and β' IV forms in cocoa butter to form β V at early storage times (t = 0-1 week), and the transformation to form β VI at times >2-3 weeks at 20 °C. There is a complex but marked effect on crystal size, mainly at early storage times.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-445
Number of pages9
JournalJAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2012


  • Chocolate, Cocoa butter, Crystallization, Differential scanning calorimetry, Limonene, Polarized light microscopy, Polymorphism, X-ray diffraction